TWC 1.06 – Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) – What Are They?   Water is a well-known conductor of electricity. If a thunderstorm develops, everyone quickly jumps out of the swimming pool — for good…

TWC 1.05 – Permanent Hardness

Permanent Hardness – What Is It?   In practice, permanent hardness is the measure of all of the remaining magnesium and calcium ions that aren’t removed by boiling. Calcium and magnesium…

TWC 1.04 – Alkalinity

Alkalinity – What Is It?   A trap for baristas is remembering the difference between an alkali (something that is alkaline) and the alkalinity of a substance. The terms are…

TWC 1.03 – Hardness

Hardness The terms general hardness (GH), total hardness, and hardness are synonymous. (Recall that hard water is high in dissolved minerals.) At BH, we tend to use the abbreviation ‘GH’…

TWC 1.02 – Potential of Hydrogen (pH)

What is pH?     In the natural environment, water is always gaining extra ions from the many substances that it dissolves. If water dissolves an acid, it causes the…