Yield is a compromise between extraction & strength. More of one comes at the expense of the other. If you’re ever frustrated by espresso, this may be why.
Tipping as an institution has all sorts of problems. Moving to service fees may help cafes provide better service in a more emotionally sustainable way.
Why people tip, how to maximize your own tip earnings, and why that all can be problematic.
After Strength, the 2nd step to every good espresso recipe is yield. Yield is the amount of espresso in the cup after extraction. It’s measured by weight though—definitely not volume.